Sun Ultra

July 16th, 2006

Warning: include(/home/magesekw.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/ccinnov8/public_html/geeksyndicate.net/wp-content/plugins/exec-php/includes/runtime.php(42) : eval()'d code on line 1

Warning: include(): Failed opening '/home/magesekw.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/cpanel/ea-php56/root/usr/share/pear') in /home/ccinnov8/public_html/geeksyndicate.net/wp-content/plugins/exec-php/includes/runtime.php(42) : eval()'d code on line 1
how does google search engin work?

Your continued donations keep Wikipedia running!
Google platform
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

For the company, see Google, Inc.; for the search engine see Google search; for other uses see Google (disambiguation).

Google Company Logo
Enlarge
Google Company Logo

Google, being one of the most popular Internet search engines, requires large computational resources in order to provide their service. This article describes Google's technological infrastructure, as presented in the company's public announcements.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Network topology
* 2 Main index
* 3 Server types
* 4 Server hardware and software
o 4.1 Original hardware
o 4.2 Current hardware
* 5 Server operation
* 6 References
* 7 External links

[edit]

Network topology

Google has several clusters in locations across the world. When an attempt to connect to Google is made, Google's DNS servers perform load balancing to allow the user to access Google's content most rapidly. This is done by sending the user the IP address of a cluster that is not under heavy load, and is geographically proximate to them. Each cluster has a few thousand servers, and upon connection to a cluster further load balancing is performed by hardware in the cluster, in order to send the queries to the least loaded Web Server.

Racks are custom-made and contain 40 to 80 servers (20 to 40 1U servers on either side), new servers are 2U Rackmount systems. Each rack has a switch. Servers are connected via a 100 Mbit/s Ethernet link to the local switch. Switches are connected to core gigabit switch using one or two gigabit uplinks.
[edit]

Main index

Since queries are composed of words, an inverted index of documents is required. Such an index allows obtaining a list of documents by a query word. The index is very large due to the number of documents stored in the servers, therefore it needs to be split up into "index shards". Each shard is hosted by a set of index servers. The load balancer decides which index server to query based on the availability of each server.
[edit]

Server types

Google's server infrastructure is divided in several types, each assigned to a different purpose:

* Google Web Servers coordinate the execution of queries sent by users, then format the result into an HTML page. The execution consists of sending queries to index servers, merging the results, computing their rank, retrieving a summary for each hit (using the document server), asking for suggestions from the spelling servers, and finally getting a list of advertisements from the ad server.

* Data-gathering servers are permanently dedicated to spidering the Web. They update the index and document databases and apply Google's algorithms to assign ranks to pages.

* Index servers each contain a set of index shards. They return a list of document IDs ("docid"), such that documents corresponding to a certain docid contain the query word. These servers need less disk space, but suffer the greatest CPU workload.

* Document servers store documents. Each document is stored on dozens of document servers. When performing a search, a document server returns a summary for the document based on query words. They can also fetch the complete document when asked. These servers need more disk space.

* Ad servers manage advertisements offered by services like AdWords and AdSense.

* Spelling servers make suggestions about the spelling of queries.

See also: List of Google server types

[edit]

Server hardware and software
[edit]

Original hardware

The original hardware circa 1998 used by Google included:

* Sun Ultra II with dual 200MHz processors, and 256MB of RAM. This was the main machine for the original Backrub system.
* 2 x 300 MHz Dual Pentium II Servers donated by Intel, they included 512MB of RAM and 9 x 9GB hard drives between the two. It was on these that the main search ran.
* F50 IBM RS6000 donated by IBM, included 4 processors, 512MB of memory and 8 x 9GB hard drives.
* Two additional boxes included 3 x 9GB hard drives and 6 x 4GB hard drives respectively (the original storage for Backrub). These were attached to the Sun Ultra II.
* IBM disk expansion box with another 8 x 9GB hard drives donated by IBM.
* Homemade disk box which contained 10 x 9GB SCSI hard drives

[edit]

Current hardware

Servers are commodity-class x86 PCs running customized versions of Linux. Indeed, the goal is to purchase CPU generations that offer the best performance per unit of power, not absolute performance. The biggest cost that Google faces is electric power consumption given the huge amount of computing power required. Estimates of the electric power consumption required for 100,000 servers range upwards of 20 Megawatts which could cost on the order of 1-2 million $US per month in electricity charges.

For this reason, the Pentium II has been the most favoured processor, but this could change in the future as processor manufacturers are increasingly limited by the power output of their devices.

Published specifications:

* 100,000 servers ranging from 533 MHz Intel Celeron to dual 1.4 GHz Intel Pentium III (as of 2005)
* One or more 80GB hard disk per server. (2003)
* 2–4 GiB memory per machine (2004)

The exact size and whereabouts of the data centers Google uses are unknown, and official figures remain intentionally vague. According to John Hennessy and David Patterson's Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Google's server farm computer cluster in the year 2000 consisted of approximately 6000 processors, 12000 common IDE disks (2 per machine, and one processor per machine), at four sites: two in Silicon Valley, California and two in Virginia. Each site had an OC-48 (2488 Mbit/s) internet connection and an OC-12 (622 Mbit/s) connection to other Google sites. The connections are eventually routed down to 4 x 1 Gbit/s lines connecting up to 64 racks, each rack holding 80 machines and two ethernet switches. Google has almost certainly dramatically changed and enlarged their network architecture since then.

Based on the Google IPO S-1 form released in April 2004, Tristan Louis estimated the current server farm to contain something like the following:

* 719 racks
* 63,272 machines
* 126,544 CPUs
* 253 THz of processing power
* 126,544 GB (approx. 123.58 TB) of RAM
* 5,062 TB (approx. 4.77 PB) of hard drive space

According to this estimate, the Google server farm constitutes one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world. At 126–316 teraflops, it can perform at over one third the speed of the Blue Gene supercomputer, which is (as of 2006) the top entry in the TOP500 list of most powerful unclassified computing machines in the world.
[edit]

Server operation

Most operations are read-only. When an update is required, queries are redirected to other servers, such as to simplify consistency issues. Queries are divided into sub-queries, where those sub-queries may be sent to different ducts in parallel, thus reducing the latency time.

In order to avoid the effects of unavoidable hardware failure, data stored in the servers may be mirrored using hardware RAID. Software is also designed to be fault tolerant. Thus when a system goes down, data is still available on other servers, which increases the throughput.
[edit]

References

1. Google Research Publications - A list of papers on Google's platform. Last accessed October 2, 2005.
2. Luiz André Barroso, Jeffrey Dean, Urs Hölzle (2003). "Web Search for a Planet: The Google Cluster Architecture". IEEE Micro 23 (2): 22–28.
3. How many Google machines, by Tristan Louis

[edit]

External links

* 2002 University of Washington Lecture by Google Fellow Urs Hölzle — About Google's Linux cluster
* The Magic of Google - The Big Factor - web-published article about Google's hardware
* Secret Source of Google's Power

Google
Services, tools, hardware, technology, features, and software
Google search | AutoLink | AdSense | AdWords | AjaXSLT | Googlebot | Blogger.com | Google Alerts | Google Analytics | Google Base | Google Calendar | Google Compute | Google Desktop | Google Earth | Google File System | Froogle | GDrive | Gmail | Google Groups | Hello | KML | Google Labs | Google Maps | MapReduce | Mediabot | Google News | Google OS | Orkut | Google Pack | Google Page Creator | PageRank | Google platform | Picasa | Google Reader | Google Ride Finder | Google Search Appliance | Google Secure Access | Google Sets | Google Sitemaps | Sketchup | Google SMS | Google Talk | Googletestad | Google Transit | Google Translate | Google Video | Google Video Marketplace | Google Web Accelerator | Google WiFi | Writely | Google X
Terminology and concepts
Argumentum ad Google | Google economy | Google (verb) | Google bomb | Googleating | Googlebait | Googlewhack | Google juice | SEO contest | Schnitzelmitkartoffelsalat | Google Talk (game)
History and criticism
Google logo | Google and privacy issues | History of Google | Google's hoaxes | Miserable failure | Google Watch
Other
ElgooG | Google Founders' Award | Googlefight | Googleplex | Google Hacks | List of Google server types | List of websites with a high PageRank | Pyra Labs | Google consultant | Scroogle | Google Space | Google Current | Google Summer of Code | Urchin Software Corporation | List of Acquisitions by Google
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_platform"

Categories: Google | Supercomputers
Views

* Article
* Discussion
* Edit this page
* History

Personal tools

* Sign in / create account

Navigation

* Main Page
* Community Portal
* Featured articles
* Current events
* Recent changes
* Random article
* Help
* Contact Wikipedia
* Donations

Search

Toolbox

* What links here
* Related changes
* Upload file
* Special pages
* Printable version
* Permanent link
* Cite this article

MediaWiki
Wikimedia Foundation

* This page was last modified 02:56, 11 April 2006.
* All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details).
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
* Privacy policy
* About Wikipedia
* Disclaimers

Find Sun Ultra On eBay Below:

SUN ORACLE Ultra SPARC IIIi 16Mhz 527 1216 527 1171 527 1285 527 1219
SUN ORACLE Ultra SPARC IIIi 16Mhz 527 1216 527 1171 527 1285 527 1219
$50.00
SUN MICROSYSTEMS 380 0194 01 ULTRA 10 CREATOR 3D W SUN 20 MONITOR GDM 20E20
SUN MICROSYSTEMS 380 0194 01 ULTRA 10 CREATOR 3D W SUN 20 MONITOR GDM 20E20
$499.99
SUN ORACLE 530 3631 01 VHDC VHDC ULTRA SCSI 4 meter CABLE TESTED w warranty QTY
SUN ORACLE 530 3631 01 VHDC VHDC ULTRA SCSI 4 meter CABLE TESTED w warranty QTY
$75.00
Sun Ultra 40 M2 300 2126 01 1000W Server Power Supply AcBel API4FS35 470G
Sun Ultra 40 M2 300 2126 01 1000W Server Power Supply AcBel API4FS35 470G
$53.67
Sun Ultra 24 316GHz Base p n ULTRA24 316GHz BASE
Sun Ultra 24 316GHz Base p n ULTRA24 316GHz BASE
$175.00
Sun P N 340 4069 03 Ultra 30 Work Station Server Host Interface Board
Sun P N 340 4069 03 Ultra 30 Work Station Server Host Interface Board
$56.65
FATORY REFURBISHED SUN 370 6689 73GB 10K RPM Ultra 320 SCSI HD with bracket
FATORY REFURBISHED SUN 370 6689 73GB 10K RPM Ultra 320 SCSI HD with bracket
$12.00
370 3694 32x Internal CDROM Sun Ultra 5 10
370 3694 32x Internal CDROM Sun Ultra 5 10
$12.95
SUN LSI22320SLE PCI Express Ultra320 SCSI Dual Channel Card Adapter 375 3357 05
SUN LSI22320SLE PCI Express Ultra320 SCSI Dual Channel Card Adapter 375 3357 05
$89.95
370 3162 Power Supply for Sun Microsystems Ultra 5 etc MiTAC MPU 200REF 200W
370 3162 Power Supply for Sun Microsystems Ultra 5 etc MiTAC MPU 200REF 200W
$90.00
AFB0812H Delta Electronics Sun Microsystems Ultra5 etc Cooling fan
AFB0812H Delta Electronics Sun Microsystems Ultra5 etc Cooling fan
$60.00
Sun Microsystem UltraSPARC IIi 360Mhz CPU 501 5148 for Ultra 5 Ultra 10 and Axi
Sun Microsystem UltraSPARC IIi 360Mhz CPU 501 5148 for Ultra 5 Ultra 10 and Axi
$29.00
100 6948 Sun NVRAM For Ultra 5 10 AXI Workstations New Battery
100 6948 Sun NVRAM For Ultra 5 10 AXI Workstations New Battery
$44.99
525 1417 IDPROM NVRAM For Sun Ultra 2 Workstation New Battery
525 1417 IDPROM NVRAM For Sun Ultra 2 Workstation New Battery
$44.99
525 1785 IDPROM NVRAM Sun Ultra 80 E420R Servers New Battery
525 1785 IDPROM NVRAM Sun Ultra 80 E420R Servers New Battery
$44.99
SUN 13oz SCSI Ultra320 LVD SE 10K 35 HDD Hitachi DK32EJ 36NC DK32EJ36NSUN36G
SUN 13oz SCSI Ultra320 LVD SE 10K 35 HDD Hitachi DK32EJ 36NC DK32EJ36NSUN36G
$18.12
Sun Ultra 5 370 3196 PCI Riser Board  Ultra5
Sun Ultra 5 370 3196 PCI Riser Board Ultra5
$9.00
Hitachi Sun 35 36 GB 80 Pin Ultra 320 SCSI Hard Drive DK32EJ 36NC w Sun Caddy
Hitachi Sun 35 36 GB 80 Pin Ultra 320 SCSI Hard Drive DK32EJ 36NC w Sun Caddy
$20.00
Fujitsu Compaq 35 36 GB 80 Pin Ultra 320 SCSI Hard Drive MAP3367NC w Sun Caddy
Fujitsu Compaq 35 36 GB 80 Pin Ultra 320 SCSI Hard Drive MAP3367NC w Sun Caddy
$25.00
Sun 375 0115 Ultra 5 10 Motherboard
Sun 375 0115 Ultra 5 10 Motherboard
$350.00
Sun Seagate ST38410A 84GB 3 1 2 5400 RPM Ultra ATA 66 HDD p n 370 3863 NIB
Sun Seagate ST38410A 84GB 3 1 2 5400 RPM Ultra ATA 66 HDD p n 370 3863 NIB
$49.98
Sun Microsystems 32MB 2x16MB Sun Ultra Memory Kit p n 501 2479 X7001A
Sun Microsystems 32MB 2x16MB Sun Ultra Memory Kit p n 501 2479 X7001A
$5.98
Sun Oracle 250GB 390 0295 540 6666 XRA ST1CE 250G7K Ultra 45 and 25 TESTED
Sun Oracle 250GB 390 0295 540 6666 XRA ST1CE 250G7K Ultra 45 and 25 TESTED
$129.00
8GB 2X4GB Memory RAM Compatible with Sun Ultra 40 M2 Workstation
8GB 2X4GB Memory RAM Compatible with Sun Ultra 40 M2 Workstation
$60.32
Sun Ultra 1 Drive Fan Assembly p n 540 2666
Sun Ultra 1 Drive Fan Assembly p n 540 2666
$14.98
16GB 4X4GB by CMS Memory RAM Compatible with Sun Ultra 40 M2 Workstation B49
16GB 4X4GB by CMS Memory RAM Compatible with Sun Ultra 40 M2 Workstation B49
$28.08
CPU Sun Ultra SPARC T1 D5243776 0549 PG 201 980 USA SME 1905A LGA
CPU Sun Ultra SPARC T1 D5243776 0549 PG 201 980 USA SME 1905A LGA
$30.00
Sun Microsystems Ultra 160 JBOD I O Module 2U Expansion Kit 370 5396
Sun Microsystems Ultra 160 JBOD I O Module 2U Expansion Kit 370 5396
$7.00
Sun X4422A 2 501 7490 Dual Gigabit Ethernet  Dual Ultra2 SCSI PCI Adapter RoHS
Sun X4422A 2 501 7490 Dual Gigabit Ethernet Dual Ultra2 SCSI PCI Adapter RoHS
$17.00
Sun Ultra 5 Workstation 400MHz 256MB RAM 40GB HD
Sun Ultra 5 Workstation 400MHz 256MB RAM 40GB HD
$395.95
SUN ORACLE 422729000004 for SunBlade 2500 Silver ULTRA 320 SCSI CABLE
SUN ORACLE 422729000004 for SunBlade 2500 Silver ULTRA 320 SCSI CABLE
$39.92
Sun Microsystems Ultra 60 300MHz 256MB 9GB HDD 3D Disk Creator GX
Sun Microsystems Ultra 60 300MHz 256MB 9GB HDD 3D Disk Creator GX
$350.00
Sun Ultra 1 Board Fan 540 2761 MT
Sun Ultra 1 Board Fan 540 2761 MT
$24.98
SUN ORACLE 375 3556 1 x 134 GHz Ultra SPARC IIIi motherboard RoHSY TESTED
SUN ORACLE 375 3556 1 x 134 GHz Ultra SPARC IIIi motherboard RoHSY TESTED
$1,300.00
SUN ULTRA 45 CPU UPGRADE 371 0083 HEATSINK WITH 527 1285 16ghz CPU TESTED
SUN ULTRA 45 CPU UPGRADE 371 0083 HEATSINK WITH 527 1285 16ghz CPU TESTED
$79.00
Sun Ultra5 10 128MB 2x64MB 60ns Memory X7031A 370 3199 KMM372F803AS 6U
Sun Ultra5 10 128MB 2x64MB 60ns Memory X7031A 370 3199 KMM372F803AS 6U
$7.00
Sun Sparc T5220 64GB Ram 4x146GB HDD Ultra Sparc T2 8 Core 14GHZ
Sun Sparc T5220 64GB Ram 4x146GB HDD Ultra Sparc T2 8 Core 14GHZ
$245.00
Qimonda 4GB 2x2GB Sun Ultra 40 Workstation PC3200 Memory Kit X7260A 371 0865
Qimonda 4GB 2x2GB Sun Ultra 40 Workstation PC3200 Memory Kit X7260A 371 0865
$29.00
NEW Sun 256MB 2x128MB Ultra 5 10 DIMM KTS7038 256 X7038A 370 3798 3rd
NEW Sun 256MB 2x128MB Ultra 5 10 DIMM KTS7038 256 X7038A 370 3798 3rd
$24.00

Recently Purchased Sun Ultra:


sun ultra20 workstation w amd opteron 22ghz dual core 4gb ram tower , sun 3001308 180w power supply for ultra1 e150, sun pci dual ultra3 scsi host adapter qla10162 dc611040202 c, sun 3702443 sbusdiff ultra scsi sp471040101 sp471070100, sun ultra enterprise 4000 deskside server 512 mb ram 4 ps 2 cpu cards, sun sparcengine ultra axi2 motherboard 5014559 with 330mhz cpu 1yr wnty, sun 3001800 1000watt ac power supply for ultra45 ultra25 ultra40 used, sun 3753357 sgxpcie2scsiu320z pcie dual channel ultra320 scsi adapter 13, sun microsystems ultra hard disk drive bracket caddy 540302401 3302238 hdd, sun microsystems ultra 10 ultrasparc iii 333mhz 256mb no hdd w mouse , sun ultra scsi 599242001, sun 3753365 dual ultra320 scsi pcix adapter sgxpci2scsilm320z, sun 3750006 x6541a dual diff ultra wide scsi card symbios 3480036690c 3480036, sun ultra 160 jbod scsi io module 3705396, sun 5014450 motherboard ultra 60 system board, sun sparc ultra 5 400mhz512mb ram 80gbdisk cdfloppy, 2 vintage booklet from sun microsystems ultra computing pack vol 1 tools apps, sun 3730019 fan board for ultra 45 25 workstations 411739300016, sunmicrosystems 371110601 front panel io panel dvdpb audio usb ultra25, sun ultra 45 motherboard 3753278 ultra45 as is for parts, sun 373002001 disk backplane 4slot sassata for ultra 45 ultra25, sun ultra 40 2xdual core 24ghz16gb1x160gbquadro fx 4500 dvd 5xavailable, 1x sun ultra sparc iii usa vintage ceramic cpu for gold scrap recovery rare, sun microsystems pci single channel ultra320 scsi hba pn 594238801, sun 5302867 ultra 60 cable assembly, pair of nec 35 floppy drive fd1231t from sun ultra 5 with mounting brackets, sun microsystems ultra 5 pci riser board pn 3703196, sun ultra 2 enterprise dual 300mhz 512mb 2 91gb hd ultrasparc, sun x1192a 360mhz 4mb ultrasparc ii cpu ultra 60 220r 5015129 5015552 5014781, sun x7038 128mb memory 3703798 sun ultra 5 ultra 10, pokemon sun and moon ultra ball 161149 full art secret rare mnm, sun 3750009 system board for 270300333mhz cpu ultra 510 wwarranty q5, sun ultra 10 pci riser board pn 3703197, 450mhz 4mb cache sun ultra 60 ultra 80 e220r e420r ultrasparcii processor, sun ultra 1 stp3010pga turboxgx video carddvdrom workstation computer no hdd, sun ultra 1 l1a9765 video carddvdrom workstation computer 600394301 no hdd, sun ultra 80 pgx32 no cpu 2x 256mb ram no hdd 875w psu desktop computer, sun ultra 60 600633501 creator 3d 2x 360mhz75gbcdfloppy350w psu server, sun microsystems ultra enterprise 2 300mhz256mbno hdd pc workstation server, sun microsystems 501560603 rev 50 ultra 60 e220r storedge netra motherboard, 3x sun 5013041 200mhz 1mb ultrasparc cpu module ultra, sun ultra 24 workstation 333ghz core 2 duo 4gb ram 250gb hd solaris used , sun microsystems x1065a 3702443 differential ultrawide scsi sbus hba, sun microsystems x6730a50152665013060 ultra2 fcal sbus dc hbacard fc100s, sun microsystems x6540a 3750005 pci dc se ultrawide scsi host bus adapter, sun microsystems ultra 5 400mhz ultrasparc iii 256mb ram no hd 380039601, sun 3002132 ultra 24 530 watt power supply fs7013 acbel psu, sun microsystems ultra 5 400mhz ultrasparc iii 256mb ram no hd 380034101, sun ultra 24 cpu cooler heatsink with fan socket 775, sun 3712131001 io front panel assembly board for ultra 2420, sun microsystems ultra 24 system motherboard 375354003 rev 50 socket 775, sun ultratm 25 45 workstation rohsy cpu fanheatsink pn 3710083, sun microsystems pwaursa sas backplane 371363001 ultra 24, sun ultra 40 m2 workstation pc 2x opteron 2222 dc 3ghz 16gb ram no hdd qty, lot of 6 sun 3703168 sun ultra 5 fan assembly 80mm wwarranty q5, sun 3703171 243w power supply for ultra 10 w warranty q5, lot of 6 sun 3703694 cdrom 32x for sun ultra510 wwarranty q5, sun 3703162 ultra 5 power supply wwarranty q5, lot of 6 sun 3703159 ultra 510 35 inch floppy drive wwarranty q5, sun ultra enterprise 2 2 200 mhz ultrasparc 512mb ram no hd 603297701, sun 3704325 ultra 10 power supply unit, sun a11 ultra1 143mhz1gbram 18gbdisk cd floppy turbogx graphic w90d, sun a11 ultra1 143mhz256mbram 18gbdrive turbogx graphic w90d, sun a12200e ultra1 creator3d graphic 200mhz1gbram 2x18gbhdd cdfloppy

Categories: Computers & Networking Tags:
Comments are closed.